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Crude Oil Fractions & Their Uses | Organic Chemistry | Chemistry | FuseSchool

Crude Oil Fractions & Their Uses | Organic Chemistry | Chemistry | FuseSchool


In our other videos, we learnt how fractional
distillation is used to separate hydrocarbons into fractions with a similar boiling point. In
this video, you will learn the names of some important fractions and their uses. As you are now aware, large hydrocarbons have
high boiling points and so are removed at the bottom of the fractionating column. Smaller
molecules condense higher up the column. We will now take a look at some of the common
fractions as we move down from the top of the fractionating column. Some of the smallest molecules are between
1 and 4 carbons in length. This fraction has such a low boiling point that it is still as a gas when
it is removed from the very top of the fractionating column. This fraction is known as refinery gas or
bottled gas. Bottled gas because it can be stored in bottles under high pressure. You could well have seen
bottles of propane or butane running barbeques or heaters in your home and these are examples
of the Refinary gas fraction. Petrol is between 5-7 carbons in length. It
is still a fraction of small chain hydrocarbons and therefore these vaporise at a low temperature
and are easily ignited. This makes it useful as a fuel in the internal combustion engine of a car. Naphtha is not such a useful fuel but is a
valuble source of organic molecules which can be cracked to make more fuels or form alkenes. Alkenes
can be turned into polymers and polymers can make plastics which are used in our everyday lives. Kerosene has an important use as a fuel for
jet engines in aircraft and even in some rockets. Kerosine is also called Paraffin in some parts
of the world and is a common fuel burnt in Paraffin or Kerosene lamps used for lighting. Diesel is the next fraction. It is a common
fuel in cars, vans and lorries. It is not as volatile as petrol and instead of spark ignition like petrol,
it ignites under compression. Below Diesel is the residue fractions: fuel oil used as a fuel in power stations
and ships, lubricating oil which sticks to surfaces and reduces friction and protects from rust. And finally
waxes which along with the oils can be used for polishing surfaces. The very bottom fraction is Bitumen. This
is the thick black adhesive used on roads either as the surface finish or combined with stone chippings
to create a solid resistant material. It can also be used to cover roofs due to its waterproofing
properties. All these fractions are separated from the
crude oil mixture. To try explain the importance of crude oil consider this – there is estimated
to be over 1 billion cars in the world of which many will use petroleum as fuel. There are many million
flights per year, each burning Kerosene fuel. Not forgetting the mass of plastic that is made
each day for products and their packaging and even the Bitumen used to surface and resurface roads
around the world. As you can see, crude oil containts many useful products that just need to be
separated from the mixture! Now at the end of this lesson you should have
a better understanding of why crude oil is such a valuable resource and use of each of the main
fractions.

Comments (53)

  1. THx you so much for upload this ! 

  2. Thanks for posting.  Clear and simple language.  well done.

  3. thanks so much now i understand 

  4. How do you make these wonderful animations.I would love to earn!!!

  5. Thanks a lot for this video I was taught little in my science class but now I want to learn how to refine crude oil!

  6. thank you٩(♡ε♡ )۶

  7. Oh my gosh thanks so much!!!! It's very useful!!!!

  8. Narration and animation is simple but powerful. Easy to understand. Thank You.

  9. Thank you so very much, my kind sir.

  10. thanks fr uploding

  11. thanks , I will translate this video to indonesian language for my students..

  12. thank you very much. This is really useful to explain the process in my presentation ^^

  13. My teacher said memories the list in order of boiling point. I have an OK memory and remembered in about 2 quick reads. Gas, petrol, naphtha, kerosene, diesel, residue, bitumen. The thing i am worried about is if i memorized the wrong list and is not its proper name (0_o) i will not sleep tonight got mock exams for science! The only thing saving me is my amazing short term memory! Correct me if i am wrong, residue is used as waxing and lubricating oil. Bitumen is used for resurfacing and surfacing roads. Kerosene is used as fuel for planes. Naphtha is used in lamps, or was it paraffin ( Kerosene) I think naphtha is used for things like plastic. Petrol gas, i think we all know that 😀 OK i so is everything correct.

  14. great for bangingout in homework and getting extra facts

  15. Hi, Great job on the video! It was super useful. I would like to know what softwere did you use to do that simple but powerful animation. I have to use something similar for my school project. Thanks 😀

  16. Can you distill the fuels on the top of the list from the lower fuels? Ex kerosene from diesel or petroleum from kerosene?

  17. How was kerosene decided to be used in planes as opposed to petrol?

  18. So in this context what is fracking?

  19. Thank you so much.

  20. kok pesawat pake kerosin

  21. you just made my research 30% easier! thanks

  22. things that should be taught in public schools…thanks for uploading this video

  23. ilk hangisi çıkıyor

  24. Thanks, saved me hours of revision

  25. U EXPLAIN WAY BETTER THEN MA TEACHER FML

  26. some words are not clear!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  27. Global Extinction should be the second part of this dudes name but yes, this is how some 4 trillion tons of carbon end up in our atmosphere yearly.

  28. Wait wasn't paraffin simply wax?

  29. taught me what what my chem teacher couldn't teach me for a month

  30. thnx for uploading such knowledge

  31. Thanks for uploading this video.Even not much without using literature language still very good and simply understandle.Thank you .

  32. This is really cool. I'm not even in a chemistry class but this was informative and entertaining.

  33. I often wonder if 100 years in the future we regret burning petroleum because of how we could have used it to make Plastics

  34. we need to be adding to the Strategic petroleum reserves on an annual basis if we don't I fear we will regret it 50 years 100 years 200 years in the future

  35. thank you for giving me information

  36. thats really helping..thank you

  37. It so use full for studies

  38. youre a good teacher, thanks

  39. Thanks for uploading such a nice knowledge!!

  40. Good video. A few issues – Propane, Butane and other bottled gases do not come from a crude fractionation tower – bottled gases come from Hydrocrackers, Gas plants or Alkylation units which are downstream of crude fractionation units. Neither does petrol or gasoline, petrol is a blend of different hydrocarbon components coming from various parts of a refinery.

  41. Oil the cause of conflict much of the world.

  42. How much power need one liter petrol?

  43. Thank you very much, after watching so many other videos. I got this right video that explains me about source of plastic…

  44. I NEED SOME ONE TEACH ME PETROLEUM ENGINEERING I AM STUDENT

  45. It starts war and destroys nature.

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