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Extraction of Palm Oil (with cc: Eng)

Extraction of Palm Oil (with cc: Eng)


Hello everybody My name is Professor Abd Karim Alisa form university Sains Malaysia and in this picture we talk about the processing of Fat and oils We focus on the Extraction process okey let’s start by looking at the overview of the process of oil and processing So basically we study the raw material. The raw material can be the seed example from soy bean seed , cotton seed , sunflower seed oil from the …from the oil palm fruits and them the oil has to be squeeze out from the raw material. so for this purpose we can use two type of extraction We can use organic solvent so they saw some extraction which extract fat or oil from the fruit from the seed and another process without using solvent basically we call “physical extraction” So you should be is using mechanical press example a screw press. to expand or to extract the oil physically out from the seed or from the oil. at the end of the extraction process we will get the crude oil so the crude oil usually contain a lot of things. Undesirable components such as free fatty acid FFA (Free Fatty Acid) oil can contain Phospholipid , pigments and a lot of moisture So the something undesirable. So the next process is to purity the oil and basically this ,what’s it call the stages or the process of refining to refine the oil to remove It mush responsible undesirable component form the crude oil so the first stage. Basically the first stage of the oil processing is to extract the oil to get it crude oil them after that refining The second major staged in the oil processing is the modification The objective of modification is to modifying the properties the oil to produce. oil product is different physical properties. The most some of this modification is process for example hydrogenation is a very lightly use foe processing the industry to increase the melting point and the solid fat content of the fat so usually we use this process to produce product like margarine then they also intest this application process and also fractionation process so the idea of this modification process is to produce various types of oil product which has higher value and which can be use for many fortification. you may be familiar with a few type of vegetable oil but the commercial oil can be extracted from various of seed and fruits. so for example on this slide you can see that oil can be extracted that from the soy bean from the oil palm fruit , canola ,sunflower from the coconut frappe , palm kernel for the oil palm and this is palm fruit The red ring flesh out side from where we can get crude palm oil and white flesh inside this actually on kernel and we can actually extract the palm kernel oil which have different physical and chemical composition from the palm kernel. The oil also can be a check extraction form corn from cottonseed from olive , in seed sunflower , from castor oil I will not focus on the extraction of palm oil from the oil palm fruits so you can see on the slide here the picture of a oil palm fruit bunch on the tree and the picture of the fruit bunch and the procession of the fruits any few have not seen , how the oil palm tree look like this how look like? this a that a tree… it not very tall so you can see the fruit bunch between the front so you have to be very careful because the short torn between the fruit bunch. If we not careful you finger on your hand a injured Okay, this how the oil palm fruit bunch look like if you have not seen one so you can see short torn and the fruitlets down here you can see the fruit strip out or come up from the fruit bunch and we take this cross–section of the fruitlets can see this a mesocarp on the flesh area from this part where we can extract hope can get the crude palm oil and the white flesh is the palm kernel surrounded by the shell, the hot shell so we can basically we can get 2 types of oil here The crude palm oil from the mesocarp and the palm kernel oil from the white flash of from the kernel part So up-to-date section you can get the from the mesocarp or out the flesh We can get the crude palm oil so the color it very dark orange color and here you can see this picture the oil has actually separated into 2 layers the bottom layer it contain a lot of insoluble component of phospholipids and other things that the need to be remove and the upper layer specific the oil. and the kernel, the middle part of the fruit palm. This look like actually the shelly is very hot We have to big the shell to get in to the white flesh and we can extract the oil from the kernel to get the crude palm kernel oil and this a how the crude palm oil look like it a thick and viscous with red orange color actually contains a lot of rich carotenoid and in this picture you can see the side by side a comparison between of the crude palm oil and appearance of crude palm kernel oil and here again close-up picture of the oil palm fruit bunch look very beautiful so to study stuff from the condition The fruit can see here the oil palm tree here now is quite so we have to use the pull to bring down from the tree It’s not on easy job. I can tell you then the fruit bunch should be collected this is we can use tractor mean to collect their fruit Then the fruit could be transport by train or by using truck or the tractor bring hopeful load of a oil palm fruits in ability to be a process If you live near the plantation you can see you know sometime the fruit now in this case the fruit is bring transported by the train here and this train actually will go to factory and this holder palm oil looks like so you can see the oil palm fruit bunch being the stored under space here and inside here already to processing take place so now let’s look at the extraction process and before they can see again this nice picture of the fruitlets with from the oil palm fruit bunch and it ‘s a picture of the kernel and the kernel the outer shelf is actually very hot so in the to get the into the white flesh inside so the kernel has the shelf-life to be broken before we can expect the oil from a from the palm kernel so for the preparation of the oil palm fruit for processing so usually I will go to the state as the sterilization process before pressing out appeared on oil from the oil palm fruits a process is the sterilization process and this process the oil palm fruit
go toward the and sterilization and a sterilizer the function of this the function of sterilization process is to deactivate the lipolytic enzymes the lipolytic enzymes success light be seen the oil palm fruit is a can cause hydrolysis all the triglyceride or the fat to produce free fatty acid and the so undesirable a chemical reaction that need to be stop so by using the high temperature in the sterilization process we can deactivate the enzyme and stop the hydrolysis process the functional this sterilization process is to deactivate the lipolytic enzymes in the fresh a fruits. the present of lipolitic enzymes success lipid can cause a hydrolysis of the triglyceride to produce free fatty acid and we don’t want to low fatty acid in the fruit because you can get a high amount of free fatty acid in the crude oil and this were require a lot of a defining to remove the free fatty acid and then the high temperature during the sterilization process also so to a soften and the fruit and to fatty acid removal or the stripping of the fruitlets from the on from the fruit bunch was so a high temperature in the sterilization process were all of soften or be conditioned near the kernel so that the shell the kernel shelly not too hot and the during the process to separate the kernel from the flesh umm.. I will reduce the baked of the kernel so that this will pressing breakage the separation the kernel from the flesh in the processing of the palm kernel oil so this is a the typical site in the factory you can see the fruit the flesh fruit palm just in the metal cages ready to be a root in the stabilizer for the process stabilization and this is the picture of the sterilizer you can see the long a a structure Vettel of the sterilizer and the door here a and that lead the related it to the metal cages welcome in from these a direction and will push to in a into the sterilizer so typically in the factory you can has for a few a sterilizer to produce a sterilization process and in this picture you can see the metal cages containing their fruit bunches is input inside the sterilizer and is an example of the schematic diagram of screw press this might not be the seem that non-reuse in the station of palm oil in this case the sexually the screw press for the oil extraction from the fruit all from the seed so basically it consists of
the screw here and the fit in lead here and the crease the metal cages in the outlet for the oil and the process of extraction of the oil occur inside is structure So this is nice. Flow Chart to show the various stages in the palm oil processing So we start from transporting FFB the fresh fruit bunch from the plantation by using various means of transportation than new with go to the oil mill to the bunch for processing than here the whole part here he said the oil extraction at the oil mill starting from the sterilization to the activate enzyme and to facilitate the process of the stripping of fruitlets later than the next process is stripping which is the process to stripper the put let from the fruit bunch and this will go to the extraction process to extract the oil and then purification process to remove joint key of the undersigned of component in the crude oil and finally we get a crude oil by this station is crude oil still contains a lot of fatty acid high a mount of free fatty acid may be 3-5% contained gum phospholipids, waxes, pigment So this need to be remove in the process of refining and we will look at refining process with the but basically began you physical refining by using steam all we can use the chemical a refining by using alkaline process but a both metaphysical Alkali refining the idea to remove the gums, phospholipid free fatty acid so various stages of refining and finally we can we will get refining oil RBD palm oil here means refined bleach and derized palm oil and we can get various by products from the refining process for example fatty acid distillate or the soap stock This is another picture or the flow chart showing the seem process of previous slide so basically we start by… transporting the raw material into the paltry and I will go to sterilization process and the whole process here is the state just to get there crude palm oil 18.19 and the kernel which is the middle part of the fruit will go a separate process we with it is panel of this factory to reduce the palm kernel oil and this is another the flow chart looks like a mill complicated but basically it consisted the same a stages to produce the, umm.. crude palm oil and also crude palm kernel oil so again we start here this is FFB order fresh fruit bush logo in the stabilizer than the stripping process to remove the fruitlets from the fruit brunch than the extraction process here identification process to remove the sediments in either undesirable component seem the crude oil and finally we get the crude palm oil and on this past here this actually the process to produce the crude palm kernel oil so we can summarize the extraction of palm oil from this diagram So we start fresh fruit bunch we will go though Sterilization process stripping of fruitlets than the extraction by using a screw press and clarification and purification before finally we get it crude palm oil and did not,sorry the kernel will go though also a separate process to produce a palm kernel oil this is a picture of umm.. crude palm kernel oil and this is refine palm oil RBD stands for refined generize palm kernel oil

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