Good morning. Now. I would not go further
into the process of fractionation and so on. Because basically you can find plenty of information
from that. The principles are always the same. Based on crystallization. So I think you can
explore on your own. And if you do not understand, of coz you can always come to me. On the last
few lectures that we have, we will take a look at our palm oil. So we use Our. And maybe
I want to find some time next week, to go back to starch. Because I have not actually
covered one lecture on sago. I have to talk about sago. I love sago. I must share my love
with sago for you. I have one good presentation, which I presented in the international hydrocolloid
conference in Singapore many years ago as a keynote speaker. I thought that presentation,
maybe not many people will be interested. But too my surprise, it was very well attended
by international participants. All this white people also. It train out that they are very
interested to learn more about sago. And they are so happy. Because in that presentation,
I had a lot of pictures of what sago is. Most of them, but maybe all of them have not seen
a sago tree or sago palm. So when they learn about the properties of sago. So sago now
is coming up as one of the starch around the world. So maybe hopefully, I can find one
slot next week to share with you but for now. Because this course is about primary product
technology. So the primary product that we focus on this course is actually palm oil.
Our oil palm. So actually sago. But sago I skipped.So I actually need to go back and
have one hour. So this is the beautiful oil palm fruits.
It is not indigenous to Malaysia. Meaning that historically that it is brought from
West Africa. Brought by the colonial to Malaysia. But because we have a very similar. Like a
tropical climate. Tropical climate. The oil palm grows and thrives. We call it thrive
in Malaysia. And because we develop the technology and the know how. The knowledge on how to
grow the oil palm. So we have a systematic plantation. Then after that we develop the
technology to develop the oil palm fruits into oil. The technology of coz was borrowed
from other processing of oil. From corn oil. But it has to be modified. Because corn seed
oil, the way they processes slightly different. So Malaysia has to develop the technology
until we become the biggest producer of corn oil. But starting from late 1980’s we help
Indonesia to develop their technology. And now they have overtaken us as the biggest
production of palm oil in the world. In terms of world production, palm oil is only second
to corn. To corn oil. And for those. I can imagine in this class. I just asked this question.
Does not mean anything. Who have not seen the actual oil palm fruits? Do not be shy.
Okay. But of coz, the tree. Because you know even along the highway.
If you fly from Penang to KL before. If you are about to land. You can see how beautiful
the green oil palm plantation is. For those of you have not seen, maybe you want to venture
into the planation and feel how to be in the middle of oil palm plantation. But be careful.
Because in the oil palm plantation you have snakes. You have snakes. I want to share one
interesting story. Because I live near the planation. So during my school days, during
the weekend with my friends, we go to the estate to play football. Riding the bike.
So one day after playing football, riding the bicycle. Suddenly a big, long cobra snake
fell from the oil palm tree. A few meters from me. And the snake fell. So it just stares
at me. And i was also speechless and stare at the snake. And do not know what to do.
Then the snake went into the bushes. Then I continue. Then just after a few meters,
imagine, another snake fell a few metres just in front of me. Just imagine another snake
fell on me. So snakes. You can see snakes easily on the oil palm plantation .Because
snakes are used as a biological control, They catch and eat the rats.
One of the unique characteristic of the oil palm. We can see here that there a lot of
sharp thorn. And this sharp thorn, you can easily get injured if you accidentally touched
sharp thorn. But once it poked into your hand, it is poisonous. Bisa is a pain which is very
painful. I just want to share my own experience helping to get extra money. Helping the plantation,
to collect the fruit. You see me, that I am thin right? But during my school days I am
very strong. Alright. So this is how it looks like. This
is while it is still young. So you can harvest the fruits quite easily.
But those who work in the oil palm planation, they are very strong. I sued to shake hands
with these people, my friends. But when I touch his hands, it is like touching something
like, Wow. So thick and hard. So this fruit is very thick and beautiful.
It is called oil palm fruit bunch. Oil palm fruit fruits. So before you can get into the
oil inside the fruits, First you have to strip off the fruits So in the processing we use
a machine called stripper to strip off the fruits. So that this won’t go into the machine.
So usually in the oil mill, the fruits have to go thru a process called sterilization.
But the term sterilization is not very acurate. Because it is not actually meant for the fruits
to achieve commercial sterility. Like in canning. You have learned commercial sterility. But
it is only meant to of coz to destroy some microrganisms. But mainly to loosen the fruits
from the branch so that it can be stripped of easily. And also to deactivate some undesirable
enzymes. The fruits while still on the tree. While it is still intact, no damage, the oil
in the fruit will be stable. But once the fruit is damage, during harvesting and transportation,
once the fruity is damaged, like this one you cut off the fruits. So the enzyme will
be released. So the enzyme like lipo and lipase will act on the triglycerides and hydrolyze
the triglycerides to from free fatty acids. FFA. The more we allow the enzyme, to act
on the oil before extraction, the more free fatty acid will be produce. SO therefore in
the later stage of refining. A process called deodorization. I do not have time to go into
that. But deodorization is basically a steam distillation process to remove the free fatty
acid as much as possible. So the more free fatty acid we have in the oil, The more we
have to remove later. So that will increase the cost in processing. So we want to prevent
as much as we can damage of the fruit from the plantation to the factory. And as soon
as it gets into the factory. We want to start the extraction process as soon as possible.
So one of the important parameter in the oil palm, especially when we extract the oil from
the oil palm. We have to measure the amount of moisture. The water content in the oil.
Because Hugh amount of moisture or water is also not good because it will promote the
hydrolysis of the triglycerides to produce more fatty acids.
So there are two parts of the fruits. This is the outer part, the flesh which contains
the palm oil. And in the middle we have the kernel. So this is called the palm kernel.
So there is a shell Just like a coconut shell. Then there is the white one. So that is the
palm kernel and the palm oil. So we can extract from here. We can get the crude palm oil.
And from the white flesh from the kernel, we can get the palm kernel oil. So there are
two types of oil. One is called palm oil from the outer part of the flesh. And the white
part is the palm kernel oil. Which has quite similar properties to the coconut oil.
So this is how it looks like. This is the kernel. So from the flesh, we can get the
crude palm oil. So the crude palm oil is usually very thick.
Dark orange in color. Contain actually high amount of carotenoids and other pigment.
Contain a lot of gums or in the form of phosphotides. So this has to be removed. It also contains
some trace metals. Heavy metals. And also metals like copper, iron. This is pro-oxidants.
Cooper, iron. So this is pro-oxidants. Meaning that it can promote or accelerate oxidation
of the fat, When the fat is oxidized, then it will become rancid. So we do not want the
crude oil to become rancid before we refine. Because then it will increase the cost of
refining. So, oobviously the crude oil has to go thru. The next step will be the refining.
So the extraction of the palm oil As well as to get the crude palm kernel oil.
So this is the kernel. Last time, after the extraction of the palm kernel oil. What happen
to the kernel? The shell? The shell they can use in the boiler to generate heat for the
processing. In the oil palm factory. There is always a boiler in the refining factory.
So the boiler will supply the steam. The steam is used in the heat exchanger to supply heat.
But the kernel is also used in the palm oil estate. They use it to cover the road surface.
You know, in the estate last time. I am referring to the estate that I was used too. You do
not have a proper road. And imagine during heavy rain. The entire road will have hole.
So what they do, is that they put this kernel on the road to sort of cover. So that it becomes.
Although it has potholes, you can still walk on the road. And it is very thick. And this
is crude palm oil. So you can see a lot of solid sediments. Solid material there. And
this has to be removed during refining so that we can get clear oil free of suspended
solid. So this is crude palm kernel oil. This is
crude palm oil. The crude palm oil in the industry, they use a short from, CPO. So when
they say CPO, it is crude palm oil. Palm kernel oil, PKO. Palm kernel oil. So if you work
in the industry, then you should know what the short form means or refered to. And now
palm oil is being used in many countries around the world. Many manufactures, Nestle used
to be the biggest user. Now I think still the biggest, although they now have reduced
the use of palm oil in some products because of the pressure of the consumer groups. But
I still think one of the big users if not the biggest.
Can you imagine, that or palm oil is everywhere. To replace the cocoa butter. Because cocoa
butter is expensive. So we can sue the hydrogenated fat as a cocoa butter substitute or coca butter
equivalent. You know condensed milk. A lot of condensed milk like Carnation and other
brands used hydrogenated palm oil. Non dairy creamer. Plastic fat like margarine. And now
we have carnation. It used to be. Many years ago we just produce this type of oil. But
realizing that the crude palm oil contain rich amount of carotenoid and tocopherol which
is a source of vitamin A and vitamin E. So they realized why they need to remove all
this. They can retain this in the oil; This oil now should be more nutritious. So they
are why when you buy carotene oil you can imagine logically, in this case they use les
refining. This one more refining to get to that extent. This some is more refined oil.
This one is less refined oil. This one should be cheaper right. But why this one is more
expensive? Because they say that this one is more nutritious. It has got more value.
But this is why the Americans are so envious about our palm oil. Because to add. To increase
the carotenoid content of some products, they have to use other source to increase the caratenoid
content .But if they use our palm oil, It is already there naturally. So I think God
has given our county, bless us with this oil palm. And Is one of the biggest crops which
can give revenue or income for our country. Even nonfood products based on palm oil. Soap.
The byproduct of palm oil refining is fatty acid. So what do we do with fatty acid? We
don’t just throw it away. We can use this fatty acids to produce oleo chemicals. We
can use this fatty acid to produce soap. Like this. To produce soap, not soup. We can use
the palm oil, the natural caratenoid in the capsule. And many other things. And we can
use palm oil to produce emulsifiers. Danisco. You can see Danisco if you go to Seberang,
before Seberang jaya on the left before Alor Setar, you can see Danisco. Next time when
you get out of the bridge, you can see on the left, Danisco on the left. Danisco is
actually a Denmark company. And they use our palm oil to produce emulsifiers.
I am sure you have seen this oil palm plantation. It is a very familiar sight. You know why
Malaysia is becoming the second producer and not the largest produce now? Well in terms
of land area we are smaller of coz. True. But adding to that, I do not know about other
state. In Selangor, from my place Kelang, I can see more and more plantation now has
been converted into housing area for residence. Because maybe they can make more money from
selling the houses. So I do not know what other states. And it is quite sad to see.
Because the green has turned into houses. And this addto the traffic jams. Because more
houses more people living in that area. And the road is still the same. It does not become
big here. You see, this tree now is very tall. And you
need to use this pole to harvest the fruits. I cannot do this. I have tried. But I am not
strong enough, And do you know that, there are many times, when you tie the fruit, you
can tie the snake as well. The snakes can sleep there. So sometimes you can capture
a snake. Already split into two. Because the knife that we sue is so sharp. Do not play,
play. Then we can pick up the fruits, This is the modern way of picking up the fruits.
I used to work to collect the fruits. So i have to poke the fruits into the car. It is
so heavy. Especially if a good, well maintained planation, the fruits are all very big and
healthy. Then we have to transport it. This is also
a typical sight. Especially if you live near the plantation. I used to ride the bicycle
to school. And this lorry will pass near my side. I am afraid. And this tractor carrying
the fruits. This is actually a weight bridge. When the tractors pass thru this, It will
actually weight the fruits plus the tractor. When the tractor go out. Empty tractor. Then
they minus the weight. So that is how they weight. Or else can you imagine how they Weight
the fruits. So the factory will pay based on the weight of the fresh fruits. But before
they pay to the plantation, they will analyze the content of the fruits, The moisture content.
Sometimes the moisture content is higher, than they will make some adjustments on how
much they have to pay. Because they can estimate the oil content of the fruits. Transport to
the factory. This is the palms oil mill. Does not look
very modern kind of cattery. So you can see the fruits been thrown outside the factory.
Sometimes. And If the fruits are transported in the trains
and this will go into the sterilizer directly. Like this. So this is a long sterilizer. You
can put maybe about 10 or 20 people inside to be sterilized.
So the rails come from this direction It will go into like this. And it will go into that
sterilizer. And this is the extraction process
Using the screw press. So now , You can look at the whole picture. So this
is in the online lecture also, So we transport the FFB, fresh fruit bunch. Enters the plant
for processing. So the first part is always extraction. So we start in the oil mill. Milling.
Sterilization. Just now in the autoclave. In the sterilizer. They call it sterilizer.
Stripping to separate the fruits from the bunch. Then extraction to extract the oil.
Then after that they put in the tank to allow the suspended solid material to precipitate
to form the sediment and then we have the oil. So this can be separated to get a clear
but to get crude palm oil at this stage. So sometimes the oil mill just does the extraction
to produce the CPO. That is it. Then it will go into another factory which is the oil refinery.
To refine the process of CPO into the refine oil. The final product is called is RBDPO.
Refined, bleached, deodorized palm oil. RBDPO. Refined, bleached palm oil. The refining process,
eventhough we did not go through in detail. Can be done by using chemical. Like sodium
hydroxide. So this is called chemical refining so basically the alkali will react with the
free fatty acid. It will react with the free fatty acid. And this is called a process called
separation. Then we can remove that. But if we do not use alkali, then we can use hot
steam. Because free fatty acid is volatile. So you can use the steam to remove the free
fatty acid. And we collect it’s as FFA Distillate. Free fatty acid distillate. So this are the
various steps whether it so physical or chemical. So this s called degumming is when we want
to remove. The crude palm oil is vicious, because of the phosphatides. So we want to
remove this as much as possible. So we used phosphoric acid. Bleaching we use an activated
carbon. Or sometime we used the bleaching earth. So bleaching earth is a small particle.
Porous particle which can absorb the pigments. The coloring matters. Absorb the trace metals,
iron, copper and so on which are the pro-oxidants. So they will absorb that during the bleaching
process. And after the bleaching the color will become lighter and lighter. So in the
palm oil refinery, if you see in the palm oil refinery. In the pipeline, at certain
point you can see a glass where you can see the oil flow thru that. So you can see the
oil change from dark orange slowly to dark brown. Then to red. Then light red. Then finally
to yellow. So you can see the stages. So this is a physical refining. And this is alkali
refining. At the need there is the deodorizing to remove the FFA To less than 10. So we have
RBD palm oil. And now this oil is ready for further modifications. So from here, we can
do hydrogenation. Interesterification, fractionation. But when we do hydrogenation. Sometimes after
hydrogenation, we have to do the deodorization again. So this step can be repeated. But this
is the final product of the palm oil refinery before it goes for further processing like
hydrogenation, interesterification and fractionation. So this is just another flow chart. Same story.
Same steps. But in this case it shows what happened to the palm kernel. What happen to
the palm kernel? So
is the crude palm oil. But this part is the kernel for the kernel.
This one is more elaborate figures this diagram was stolen by my spy from the factory. One
of the students who went for the industrial training and I think he got their permission
to get this diagram. So when he presented in the seminar, I saw this is a nice diagram.
So I take the diagram from the student to share with you. But it is the same thing also
actually. You can see here that the fruits go into the sterilizer. Wane we strip the
fruits, it is a stripping here, extraction by using a screw press, then the oil goes
thru several stages of process until it gets the palm oil. The palm oil. And this one.
The kernel goes into the process to produce the palm kernel oil, More or less the same.
Any oil, any plant oil, vegetable oil, Corn oil, canola oil, olive oil. They all contain
triglyceride. Do you have any test after this? You have. Okay. One more minute. So remember,
in the oil we have triglyceride. 100s of triglycerides. Each with their own melting point. So if we
cool down the temperature, below the melting point of the triglycerides, it will crystllize.
So you can imagine you have one fraction with 10 triglycerides there. And you have another
fraction. So each fraction will have their own properties, their own iodine value, different
degree of saturation, ratio of saturation and unsaturation. So we can end up with many
fractions. So from the palm oil, the iodine values are
from 51-53. That shows that Iodine values is actually a measure of degree of unsaturation.
The double bond. So this shows very roughly that poem oil contains 50-50 saturated and
unsaturated. Okay. Then we separate into two fractions. Liquid fraction called olein. Solid
fraction called hard stearin or stearin. And you can see hard stearin or olein have a very
significant IV. Hard stearin compared to olein. Because hard stearin contain more saturated
fatty acid. So less, iodine value is lower. So olein contains more unsaturated fatty acid.
So iodine value is higher. And olein can be further fractionated to super olein, soft
PMF. What is PMF? Palm middle fraction. Lee hoon has studied. Palm middle fraction. And
stearin can also be fractionated. So you can see the differences. The main difference here
is the IV. The iodine value. And therefore they have different stability, different range.
Different amount of solid fat. So they can find application in different types of products.
So we stop here. And please check the enmodule for different instruction on the test and
other things related to the course. Have a nice weekend. See you all next week.